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Home > Business 商业 > Does Employee Satisfaction Unlock Customer Satisfaction?员工满意度是开启客户满意度之匙吗?Dennis Heaton PHD

Does Employee Satisfaction Unlock Customer Satisfaction?员工满意度是开启客户满意度之匙吗?Dennis Heaton PHD

 

    客户满意度与员工满意度密切相关。事实上有报告显示其相关系数达到0.86。因此,致力于完善客户满意度的中国公司会通过实施员工满意度强化计划而受益。

    正如在员工—客户—利润链中的关联图示一样,本文讨论员工满意度与客户满意度之间的联系。之后的一篇文章将讲述一些有组织的实践活动,这些实践能够强化员工满意度,从而增加客户满意度和利润。

    员工—客户—利润之间的逻辑关系

    企业的利润和成长取决于是否能使客户满意。满意而归的客户会重复购买行为并口口相传于其他新的客户。员工是使客户满意的重要环节。如果公司能持续拥有主动而有技能的员工,那么就会给客户提供持续的高质产品和服务。客户也将更倾向于保持对公司的忠诚。反之,较高的员工流动将使公司与客户的关系受到损害。因此,留住满意员工的人力资源措施将有助于增加客户的满意度。

 

    销售额增加

    人力资源实践→满意的员工→满意的客户→利润增长

    以上图示的关系链可成为一个良性循环。即:有较高利润的公司能够投资于更多的人力资源实践活动来进一步促进员工的满意度。作为回报,客户满意度会更高,利润更多。那么就会有更多的资源投资于人力资源方面。这些在人力资源上的投资进一步促进了员工的奉献精神。同时,由于员工流动率的不断降低,培训成本不断减少,使利润率进一步提高。

        Toyota公司观察了员工满意度及客户满意度之间的关系,以及其它商业表现的测量结果。在1986年到1993年期间,他们发现在客户满意度指数走向、市场份额及利润之间有很高的关联度。Toyota还比较了较高和较低客户满意度的两类交易情况。有较高客户满意度的交易中,每个员工的纯利要高出67%,而员工更换率低43%,而广告费用低30%。该数据表明:获取客户满意度不仅是员工满意度的结果,同时也是员工满意度的产生原因。

    什么是员工满意度?

    员工满意度是员工对其工作环境的各个方面所持的态度。这些不同方面的例子可在明尼苏达满意度问卷(MSQ)中的20级度量中得到体现。该度量表是测量员工满意度的一个通用方法。MSQ度量表包含有养老金制度、同事关系、工作条件、发展机会及人际关系监督等。

    不同的员工对不同的满意度方面的重视程度是不同的。在一项有ISCOCS组织的研讨会上,有些员工说物质奖励最重要,另外一些人认为工作环境中的相互气氛最重要,而对其他一些人来说,提供成长及创造性的机会最为紧要。这些反映符合了员工动力来自于存在需要、关系需要及成长需要的理论(ERG)。

    使用如MSQ这样标准问卷的员工调查,是测量员工满意度的一个重要的规范途径。公司内部或公司于其他公司之间,数据可以在不同组别中进行对照比较。一些公司使用员工满意度及客户满意度数据作为考核和奖励上层管理人员系统的一部分。收集到这些满意度数据后,公司就可以给相关管理人员安排落实如何去获取增进客户和员工满意度的方法。

    员工满意度调查也许并不适用于所有的公司。在经理之间要公开采集到的数据以决定是否采纳和如何回应。公司还应注意到,员工的期望值会因这些规范收集到的满意度数据而增加—他们会关心什么被采纳了,以及得到这些数据后公司会采取哪些措施。满意度也可以通过非正式的途径,如观察和讨论进行评估。

    中国公司是否需要关注员工满意度?

    今天,在中国对高素质职业员工的需求竞争日益增长。这些员工更换工作的机会也越来越多。因此受过良好教育的职业人才频繁更换工作成为一个趋势。如何给员工提供较高的满意度以保留你的最有才能的员工值得每个公司认真关注。

    为使雇员满意并留住他们,中国的雇主们应考虑给他们提供有竞争力的薪资、灵活的物质待遇,在员工和管理人员之间建立牢固的关系,并提供认可及发展的机会。

    员工满意度与客户满意度相关的依据是什么?

    有个别公司在其内部研究报告中提到员工满意度对商业的冲击。电话公司MCI发现在员工满意度与客户满意度及客户持续购买MCI产品之间有直接关联。数码设备公司(后归于与惠普合并的康柏公司)发现在员工满意度上处于前四分之一部分的field districts其客户满意度比后四分之一的field districts42%,利润增长幅度高34%

    其关键在于哪里员工满意度低,则客户满意度也极有可能低;哪里员工满意度高,则极有可能其客户满意度也高。已被报道过的员工满意度与客户满意度之间0.86的相关系数表现了两者之间紧密相关的程度。

    满意的员工将引来满意的客户,这种管理哲学观点已为一家美国航空公司的首席执行官所概括,他说:“我们善待自己人,则他们善待我们的客户。”在下一篇文章中我会讲述一些有组织的实验事例,说明公司是如何强化员工满意度以提高客户满意度及利润的。

 

Customer satisfaction is very closely associated with employee satisfaction. In fact the correlation between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction has been reported to be .86 (Urlich & Lake, 1991). Therefore, Chinese companies seeking to improve customer satisfaction will benefit by implementing programs that enhance employee satisfaction.

 

The present article reviews the association between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction, as it has been articulated in the employee customer profit chain (Heskett, Jones, Loveman, Sasser, & Schlesinger, 1994). A second article, in the next issue of CSS&CSSI Forum will present some of the organizational practices that can enhance employee satisfaction in order to improve customer satisfaction and profit.

 

The Logic of the Employee Customer Profit Chain

The profit and growth of the firm depends on satisfying customers. Happy customers will buy again, and will refer new customers. Employees are a key link to keep customers happy. If the firm can retain employees who are motivated and skilled then the firm can provide more consistent quality of goods and services. Then customers will feel more inclined to stay loyal to the company. On the other hand, relationships with customers will be hurt if there is high turnover in employees. Therefore, human resource practices that retain satisfied employees can help improve customer satisfaction.

 

Satisfied

Employees

Satisfied

Customers

Revenue Growth and Higher

Profits

 

 

 

 

HR

Practices

 

 

 

 

 

 

This chain of relationships can become a virtuous cycle. That is, when a firm has higher profits it can invest more in the human resource practices that promote employee satisfaction. This in turn leads to more satisfied customers, more profit, and again more resources to invest in human resources. These investments in human resources further boost employee commitment and help profitability by further reducing turnover and training costs.

 

Toyota looked at the relationship between customer satisfaction and other measures of business performance. For the period 1986 to 1993 they found a high correlation between customer satisfaction index trends and market share and profits. Toyota has also compared dealerships that were high in customer satisfaction with those that were low. The high customer satisfaction dealerships had 67% higher net profit per employee, 43% less salesperson turnover, and 30% less advertising cost (cited in Bailey & Dandrade, 1995). This data suggests that achieving customer satisfaction is not only a result of employee satisfaction, but also is a cause of employee satisfaction.

 

What is employee satisfaction?

Employee satisfaction is the attitudes that employees have toward different aspects of their work situations. Examples of these different aspects can be seen in a sample of the 20 scales that comprise the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), a common measure of employee satisfaction; MSQ scales include compensation, co-workers, working conditions, advancement, and supervision—human relations (http://www.psych.umn.edu/psylabs/vpr/msqinf.htm).

 

Different aspects of satisfaction are important to different employees. At a recent seminar organized by ISCOCS, some employees said financial rewards were most important; others said that the social climate of the workplace was paramount; and for others opportunities for growth and creativity were what mattered most. These responses fit the theory that employee motivation includes existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs (ERG ref).

 

An employee survey, using a standardized questionnaire such as the MSQ, is a formal way to measure employee satisfaction. Data can be compared across groups within an corporation and compared to external norms. Some companies use employee satisfaction data, as well as customer satisfaction data, as part of their systems for measuring and rewarding the performance of top managers. When companies do collect such satisfaction data, they can assign accountability to specific managers for achieving targeted improvements in customer and employee satisfaction measures.

Employee satisfaction surveys may not be appropriate in all companies. There needs to be openness among managers to accept and respond to the data that is obtained. Companies should also be cautious that employee expectations may be raised by formally collecting satisfaction data—employees will be interested in knowing what was learned and what actions the company plans to take after collecting survey data. Satisfaction can be assessed through less formal means such as observation and discussion.

 

Do Chinese companies need to be concerned with employee satisfaction?

Today in China there is increasing competitive demand for professionally qualified employees and such employees have increasing opportunities to shift their employment. So a trend is being seen toward frequent job changes among educated professionals. Your company needs to be concerned about how to keep your most talented employees by providing them employee satisfaction.

 

To satisfy and retain employees, employers in China should consider offering competitive pay and flexible financial benefits, building loyal relationships between employees and managers, and providing opportunities for recognition and advancement (Melvin, 2001).

What is the evidence connecting employee satisfaction to customer satisfaction?

Individual companies have reported on their internal studies of the business impact of employee satisfaction. The telephone company MCI found a direct link between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and customer intentions to continue to use MCI services. Digital Equipment (later acquired by Compaq, which has merged with HP) found that field districts in the top quarter in terms of employee satisfaction had 42% higher customer satisfaction and 34% higher profit margins than and districts in the bottom quarter (Bailey & Dandrade, 1995).

The main point is that where employee satisfaction is low, customer satisfaction will likely also be low; where employee satisfaction is high, there also will probably be high customer satisfaction. The reported correlation of .86 between customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction indicates that these two are strongly related to each other.

Satisfied employees can lead to satisfied customers. This philosophy of management has been summarized by a CEO of an U.S. airline company, who said: “ We treat our people well, and in turn they treat our customers well” (Ascribe News, 2001). In the next next issue of CSS&CSSI Forum I will present examples of organizational practices that companies are uses to enhance employee satisfaction in order to improve customer satisfaction and profit.

 

Reference:

 

Alderfer, C. P. (1972). Existence, Relatedness, Growth. New York: Free Press. Bailey, Betty & Dandrade, Robert. Employee Satisfaction + Customer Satisfaction = Sustained Profitability: Digital Equipment Corporation’s Strategic Quality Efforts. Center for Quality of Management Journal ,Volume 4, Fall, 1995.

 

Ascribe News. Happy, Passionate Employees Key to Good Business, Top Executives Say” Ascribe News, April 16, 2001

 

Heskett, James L.; Jones, Thomas O.; Loveman, Gary W.; Sasser, W. Earl, Jr.; Schlesinger, Leonard A. “Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work”; Harvard Business Review, March/April, 1994.

 

Melvin, Sheila. “Retaining Chinese Workers”. China Business Review, November-December 2001.


Ulrich, Dr. David and Lake, Dr. Dale “Organizational Capability Creating Competitive Advantage”. Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 5, 1991.

 

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