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Home > Business 商业 > Wainwright Industries A Case Study in Employee and Customer Satisfaction Wainwright公司——一份员工和客户满意的案例研究 David H. Goodman, Ph.D. 王文广译

Wainwright Industries A Case Study in Employee and Customer Satisfaction Wainwright公司——一份员工和客户满意的案例研究 David H. Goodman, Ph.D. 王文广译

David H. Goodman博士, 美国Maharishi管理大学(Maharishi University of Management )市场营销学教授,曾数次来中国访问教学,今年夏季携夫人来北京访问时,愉快地应约特别撰写本文。

 

 

Wainwright公司,总部位于美国密苏里州的St. Peter市,就在St. Louis市的北边。这家公司获得了1994年美国Malcom Baldridge(波得里奇)国家质量奖。这个奖项象征着优异的质量。Wainwright公司由于独创性地使用了质量管理的原理,并且取得了引人注目的成就,因而获此殊荣。Wainwright公司主要提供高精度的冲压零件和配件给汽车公司和航空公司的客户。Wainwright公司生产极其优秀的产品。但更重要的是,这个令人惊异的公司是一种理念的活的实验室。这种理念是Wainwright公司文化的鲜明特征:“真诚地信任并相信别人。”公司对于这个理念的承诺每天都在被实行和评测。

 

Wainwright公司主要有五点策略上的重中之重。第一是安全,紧接着是员工(内部客户)满意,然后是外部客户满意,再然后是产品质量,最后是由商业行为体现出的财务结果。Wainwright公司的现场经理Mike Simms评论说,“如果为通用汽车公司生产配件的工人们不满意,那么通用汽车公司又怎么会满意呢?”。应该注意的是,财务结果只是生产流程正常运转的一个副产品,而不是毫不相干的另一件事。对于Wainwright公司来说,下面的问题显而易见:如果你不经常评测员工和客户的满意程度,你怎么能知道他们是否满意呢?如果你不能评测并培训你的员工,你怎么能知道,你的公司是否让人信任?在Wainwright公司,信任、质量和客户满意都被定期地评测,而员工们也经常接受各种培训以不断提高他们工作的效率。

 

不管是对于内部客户还是外部客户的满意,其关键问题是沟通、送货、质量和负责。这些问题都被定期地进行评分。公司会对客户进行调查,以评测他们对于公司的满意程度。而客户会选择每隔多久来完成一次这种五分钟左右的调查。如果调查结果显示,客户的满意度降到了95%以下,那么,一个行动小组就会召开会议来研究这个问题,并在48小时内给客户发送一份传真,给出一个补救问题的方案。一个叫做“使命控制”的中央会议室的墙上展示着每一位客户的信息。每一个客户的名字上面,或者是一面小绿旗,或者是一面小红旗。绿旗代表着95%或高于95%的客户满意度。Wainwright公司的旗子几乎都是绿的。然而,如果有一名客户的调查显示了低于95%的满意度,那么公司名字上面就会放一面红旗,相应的行动计划马上就会产生,并且此计划会立即被执行。

 

使客户满意度连续高于95%,这完全取决于培训良好、受到强烈激励的员工。Wainwright公司已经增加了培训的范围,并加强了对于员工在全面质量管理中的贡献的信任。公司7%发给员工的工资是用于员工的培训上。这样,员工们可以意识到他们有巨大的潜力在一个团队中把工作做好。这些培训鼓舞了士气,提高了产量和公司的利润。另外,员工们分享公司的利润,并且被鼓励在他们的工作领域,取得不断的进步。

 

信任公司的员工并不简简单单是一件给员工工具让他们去工作的事情,也是一件提供必要的培训,以便让员工能够把工作做好的事情。并且,这件事情也是公司应该立即着手去办的。离具体工作最近的人是员工,他们能够通过建立和实施系统的计划来提高工作的效率和效果。当然,这种系统的计划需要由主管来进行审查。这种员工的参与更加与公司的目标一致。此外,Wainwright公司也实施了许多其它的策略,这些策略旨在推进员工对于公司事物的参与,比如利润分享,还有定期的员工满意度调查。经理们分析这些调查结果,并且认真思考在公司中提高员工士气和满意度的方法。

 

Wainwright公司相信,只要给予每个员工以机会和必要的技能,他们都会对公司的发展做出积极的贡献。公司通过个人和团队的工作来鼓励员工对公司事物的参与。对于团队贡献的认可是一贯的。而个人的动议也通过“持续发展过程”(简称CIP)这样一个计划得到肯定的支持。CIP是员工们的想法,这个想法用于改进工作场所的环境。员工负责记录和实施那些改进措施,而主管则感谢员工们所做的贡献,并且从所有的CIP人选中随机挑选一位获奖者,这位获奖者会获得礼品券,免费电影通票,晚餐券或者体育活动的入场券,每个季度公司都会进行抽奖和举办午餐会。

 

对于员工的信任提供了对产品质量、持续发展和客户满意工作的情感上的支持。公司文化高度看重团队合作,这种团队文化可以从以下几个Wainwright公司文献中记载的故事中看出来。例如,人们把团队合作类比成一个沙袋团队。在这个团队中,人们给粗麻布袋装满沙子,并把这些装满沙子的袋子通过站成一队的人一个接一个传下去,直到这些袋子被垒成一道高度足以抗击洪水的堤坝。在这个故事中,有两个形象化的暗示,一个是洪水水位线,一个是抗击洪水的沙袋堤坝的高度。这两者使这个团队集中精力于眼前的任务。任何一个想要比团体行动快一些的人不但不能加速整个工作过程,相反会带来混乱。同样地,团队中的每个人必须共同工作,并理解整个团队工作的速度和进程。

 

Wainwright公司使用的另一个有关团队合作的比喻是公共汽车。每一个人都在同一辆驶向未来的公共汽车上。员工们乘坐汽车,中层管理人员开动这辆汽车,高层管理人员在车的尾部,集中精力于长期的战略目标。员工们与公司的战略方向是一致的,因为它们有着清晰的共同目标,而这些目标是切实可行的,并与公司的文化价值相一致。

 

第三个类比引入了“大雁”,它是公司的吉祥物,象征着团队合作。由于每只大雁都在“V”字型的队伍中振翅飞翔,每只大雁都为后边的大雁产生了一种浮力。以“V”字型队列飞翔的雁群比单只大雁飞翔的距离可以远70%。这个类比被用来支持团体和目标共享的理念。当领头的大雁累了的时候,它就会到队伍的后面去,另一只大雁马上就会飞到领头的位置。队伍中的大雁不时发出鸣叫,以鼓励前面的大雁保持它们的速度。如果一只大雁掉队了,一队大雁们会脱离队形去帮助那个生病或者受伤的大雁。它们会和那只大雁呆在一起,直到它恢复了力气或者死去,然后它们会重新排成自己的队形出发,直到它们赶上前面的大队。

Wainwright公司可以学到的东西很多,但最主要的是,你可以在“待人如已”这句话中找到如何追求质量和客户满意的真谛。也就是说,从你的员工开始,评测各个层次的客户满意度,包括内部客户和外部客户,信任你的员工,他们有能力把自己的工作做好。培训并信任内部客户(即公司员工)、对外部客户负责,已经为Wainwright公司带来了15%的赢利。这些赢利来自于投资和高质量的产品。同时,这些高质量的产品使通用汽车公司和波音公司这样的客户感到满意和高兴。

 

(原文章附后)

 

Wainwright Industries, headquartered in St. Peters Missouri, USA, just north of St. Louis Missouri, won the 1994 Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award in the United States. The Baldridge Award signifies quality excellence, and was given to Wainwright for its innovative use of quality principles with impressive results. Wainwright Industries supplies high precision stamping parts and assemblies to automotive and aerospace customers. Wainwright manufactures excellent products, but more importantly, this amazing company is a living laboratory for a concept that is fully a signature of its corporate culture: “sincere trust and belief in people.” Wainwright’s commitment to this concept is measured and acted upon in the firm every day.

There are five main strategic priorities at Wainwright. The first priority is safety, followed by employee (internal customer) satisfaction, then external customer satisfaction, product quality and finally, financial results in terms of business performance. Mike Simms, Wainwright’s plant manager comments: “how can General Motors be satisfied if the workers making parts for General Motors are dissatisfied?” Note that financial results are considered a by-product of having the process working properly and not the other way around. To Wainwright, the following question is obvious: how can you know if you have satisfied employees or customers unless you regularly measure this satisfaction, and how do you know if you have trust if you cannot both measure and train for it? At Wainwright Industries, trust, quality, and customer satisfaction are regularly measured and training is provided to employees to continuously improve their effectiveness.

The key issues of both internal and external customer satisfactions are communication, delivery, quality and responsiveness. These issues are graded on a frequent and regular basis. A survey is offered to customers to measure their level of satisfaction. The customer chooses how often to complete the survey, which takes about five minutes to answer. If external customer satisfaction scores less than 95% on the survey, then an action team is convened to address the problem with a recovery plan that is faxed to the customer within 48 hours. A central room called “mission control” displays information and data about each customer on the wall. Above each customer’s name is either a green or red flag. Green flags indicate 95% or more customer satisfaction. The flags are almost always green at Wainwright. However, if a customer survey shows a satisfaction response of less than 95%, a red flag is placed above the company name, the action plan is created to address the situation and the plan is implemented immediately.

The ability to consistently score above 95% with external customers depends fully on a highly trained and motivated workforce. Wainwright has added the dimension of training and trusting the employee as its contributions to total quality management. Seven percent of payroll is spent on employee training so that employees can realize their highest potential to do their job well in a team environment. This employee training has boosted morale, productivity and profitability. Moreover, employees share in profits of the firm and are encouraged to make continuous improvements in their work areas. Trusting the employee is not simply a matter of giving the worker the tools to do the job, but also involves offering the training necessary so that the employee can do the job well and is a master of the task at hand. Then the worker, who is closest to the job, is capable of understanding how to improve efficiency and effectiveness by creating and implementing systematic plans for improvement, which are reviewed by a supervisor. This employee involvement creates greater alignment with the company goals. Moreover, other strategies are implemented in Wainwright, which promote employee involvement with the company including profit sharing, and also regular surveys of employee satisfaction. Managers analyze these surveys and seriously consider ways to improve morale and employee satisfaction in the company.

Wainwright Industries believes that each employee can make a positive contribution to improving the organization given the opportunity and skills to make change happen. The company encourages employee involvement through individual and team work. Recognition of contributions based on team performance is consistent. Individual initiative is also supported through the Continuous Improvement Process (CIP). A CIP is any employee’s idea, which has the potential to improve the workplace. The employee is responsible for documenting and implementing improvements. The supervisor acknowledges the contribution, and a random drawing of all CIPs selects a winner for gift certificates or free movie passes, dinners or sporting events. There are also quarterly luncheons and quarterly drawings.

The ingredient of trust in employees provides the emotional support to a focus on product quality, continuous improvement and external customer satisfaction. Teamwork is highly viewed in the corporate culture, and this team culture is supported by the following stories taken from the Wainwright literature. For example, teamwork is supported by the analogy of a sandbag team. Sandbag teams have workers filling burlap bags with sand and passing these filled sandbags from person to person on a line until the bags are positioned to make a wall, or levee, high enough to stop the flood waters. Two visual cues, the water level of the river and the level of the sandbags creating a levee to protect against the flood, keep the team focused on the task at hand. Any individual trying to go faster than the group process cannot improve the process but he or she only creates havoc. Similarly teams have to work together and understand the speed and process of group work.

Another image of teamwork that is used at Wainwright is the bus. Everyone is on the same bus driving to the future. The workers are riding the bus; the bus is driven by middle management, with top management at the rear of the bus focusing on long term strategy. Workers are aligned to the strategic direction by clear common goals, which are measurable and attainable, consistent with the cultural values of the firm.

A third analogy involves the goose, the mascot of the firm, which symbolizes teamwork. As each bird flaps its wings in the “V” formation, it creates uplift for the bird following. By flapping together in formation, the whole flock adds 70% more flying range than if each bird flew alone. The analogy is used to support the concept of community and shared direction and purpose. When the lead goose gets tired, it falls back into the pack and another goose flies at the lead position. The geese in formation honk to encourage those up front to keep up their speed. If a goose falls, a group of birds will drop out of formation and help the sick or wounded bird. They will stick with the wounded or sick bird until it regains its strength, or dies. Then they start out again in their own formation until they catch up with the main formation.

The lessons from Wainwright are many but the main point is that the pursuit of quality and customer satisfaction can be found in treating others as you treat yourself. This means starting with your employees, training and measuring all levels of customer satisfaction, both internal and external, and then trusting employees to do the job that they are paid to do. Training and trusting the internal customers, the employees, and being responsive to external customer satisfaction at Wainwright has yielded a compounded 15% return on investment, and the high quality output that has satisfied and delighted customers such as GM and Boeing.

 

 

 

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